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culture rosa damascena

There is a long list of various tools used in each of these processes, some of which you can see in the Institute of Rose in Kazanlak and their museum. I have to agree with those foreign visitors of my homeland, the Valley has its unique charm. Beyond that, recent research on Rosa damascena essential oil has highlighted its anti­oxidant, antibacterial and anti­microbial activities. Back in the day, rose producers would experiment with various techniques in order to produce higher quality rose otto. In cazul in care trandafirii nu … Required fields are marked *. For example, compared to the Turkish rose oil producers, Bulgarian producers make 40 to 86 vials to the 14 to 53 Vials of their Turkish neighbours. On the other hand, the locals would ask what are the prices of the rose oil and would search for the commissioner who offers the best price. Soil sciences and vegetal productions Turkish rose oil is sold as "Rose Oil", "Turkish Rose Otto", and "Rosa Damascena Attar", or "Ittar" in similar languages. Evi-dence is presented to support the theory that R. damascena was originally an and Rosa rugosa Thunb. INCI NAME: Rosa damascena Callus Culture Extract, Rosa rugosa Callus Culture Extract, Glycerin, Aqua. Did you know: In 1886, the renown rose trading house “Kancho Shipkov” bought 92 984 vials of rose oil from various towns and villages across the Valley. Rosa × damascena is a cultivated flower that is not found growing wild. [8], The flower, known in Hawaiian as Lokelani, is the official flower of the Island of Maui.[9]. In his third letter to the National geographic institute in Paris in 1859, S. Paye points out: “The Kazanlak valley was called by the Turks – ‘Tele’ – the richest and most fertile land in European Turkey.”. As the rose oil production season comes each year, the so-called комисионери (commissioners) or in Turkish колджии (koldjyy) – traders would start visiting each rose producer and would ask what is this year’s production. Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in Iran is one of the most important species of. Morocco, Tunisia, and some other Middle Eastern nations also historically produced it, but their modern contribution is negligible. Rosa damascena (other common names: damask rose, summer damask rose). Bulgaria and Turkey are the most prolific producers of rose oil from the different cultivars of Rosa × damascena. It is a unique region, where nature and the climatic conditions are most suitable for cultivation of roses and a wide range of essential oil yielding plants. Its flavor is pure, fascinating and mesmerizing. Abstract. Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in … A still popular example of R. × damascena is the Ispahan rose. Damask roses are used in cooking as a flavouring ingredient or spice. Pretty expensive, huh? The roses have a fascinating history […], Your email address will not be published. amzn_assoc_linkid = "505048952166834e80a12d9350955ed3"; The Bulgarian Rosa Damascena has over 280 components thanks to the special climate and soil it is grown in, which makes its aroma, longevity and intricacy extremely precious and desired by the most famous perfume brands in the world. [8] An attempt has been made to restore this industry as an alternative for farmers who produce opium. Rosa × damascena is optimally cultivated in hedge rows to help protect the blooms from wind damage and to facilitate harvesting them. The local producers would need years of experience in order to distinguish the original from the fake. The name of the rose refers to the city of Damascus in Syria, known for its steel (Damask steel), fabrics (Damask) and roses. The roses are gathered by hand and brought to a central location for steam distillation. The average growth of lands planted with roses was between 2 and 5 thousand square meters a year. Throughout the 18th, 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, various western, Russian and Bulgarian explorers, writers and revolutionaries have mentioned the development and importance of the rose production in Bulgaria. Rosa Damascena (or Damask Rose) has a long history with origins as far as Ancient Persia. amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "search"; The cultivar known as Rosa gallica forma trigintipetala or Rosa damascena 'Trigintipetala' is considered to be a synonym of Rosa × damascena.[5]. The famous rose trader Ganyo Somov from Enina village would put rose vials in his belt and would travel to international fairs and exhibitions, trying to find the best price he can get. ORIGIN: De-differentiated cells of Rosa damascena Mill. Category. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Rosa Damascena Flower water is an aqueous solution of the steam of the distillate obtained from the flowers of the Damask Rose, Rosa damascena, Rosaceae 13. [citation needed]. December 12, 2019 @ The rose oil industry partially changed gold trading, iconography, woodcraft, architecture etc. Modern Western cookery does not use roses or rose water much. The ‘Hazard classification and labelling’ section shows the hazards of a substance based on the standardised system of statements and pictograms established under the CLP (Classification Labelling and Packaging) Regulation. 4:55 pm, Hello, sorry for the late reply, the rose picking rituals are 1 hour events organised during the weekend of the rose festival, if you want to visit a rose field during the work days, there won’t be any event, but you can simply pick a few roses and enjoy the view, here are the closes rose fields: https://goo.gl/maps/7NCMTmDpkBM2, Rose Products Hazard classification & labelling Hazard classification and labelling. However, it was a popular ingredient in ancient times and continued to be popular well into the Renaissance. June 5, 2018 @ The rose pickers pick the rose petals in special, willow branch baskets as the willow does not soak the dew of the rose petals. amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase = "organic rose oil"; The French Crusader Robert de Brie, who took part in the Siege of Damascus in 1148 at the second crusade, is sometimes credited for bringing the Damask rose from Syria to Europe. The overall cost of having a 2000 square meter of rose plantation maintained costed 45 levs. Hold the rosebud and break it by pressing it upwards with your thumb. Join now. Bulgaria’s Rose Valley and Rosa Damascena – The Bulgarian Rose, Explore the Valley of Thracian Kings – Bulgaria’s Thracian Heritage, Your Detailed Guide to the 2021 Rose Festival in Kazanlak, Bulgaria, Valley of Roses – Bulgaria and Its Breathtaking Landscapes – Local Guide, How to Get to the Rose Festival in Kazanlak, Rose Valley Bulgaria – All You Need to Know. It is thought that cultivation of Rosa damascena originally developed in the Lyzangan Valley near Fars in Iran (Kiani et al 2008). In Kazanlak it begins on the 5th of May and ends on the 20th of June, in Karlovo it begins on the 7th of May and ends on the 19th of June, in Nova Zagora, it begins on the 8th of May and ends on the 25th of June. Name: rosa damascena mill. Out of 1 kilogram of rose petals, you can produce 1 kilogram of rose water. Could you tell me the name and address of these rose fields so we can go there today? Learn how your comment data is processed. Did you know: Bulgaria produces close to half of the world’s rose oil and the ‘Bulgarian Rose Oil’ was patented in 1994. CAS Number: 90106-38-0 IUPAC Name: Absolute of Rosa Damascena (Rosaceae) obtained from fresh rose flowers by extraction with an apolar solvent followed by an extraction with ethanol Now when you go on a rose picking event in the valley, the locals will be amazed and will say: “Wow, how did you know how to pick roses? Beyond being known for its heady fragrance, the Damask rose has long been used for rose oil or “attar of roses”, and is commonly used to flavour food and make rose water. EC Number: 290-260-3 EC Name: Rose, Rosa damascena, ext. The Damascena Rose is one of the specific crop of the magnificent Valley of Dades. In the early 20th century, out of 479 farmers, 427 grew Rosa Damascena in addition to the usual crops. The leaves are pinnate, with five (rarely seven) leaflets. The rose is known for its vivid pink or white and pink bicolor blooms. Each village in the rose Valley had their special method of maintaining, planting and processing the rose petals. 11:52 am, […] Roses are perhaps the main economy in this part of Bulgaria. From John Parkinson, 'Theatrum botanicum' (London: Tho. Introduction. The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for rose oil (either "rose otto" or "rose absolute") used in perfumery and to make rose water and "rose concrete". El-Sharnouby ME 1,2 *, Khattab Eman AH 3,4, Saqer S Alotaibi 1 and Haya Mohammed MA 5. amzn_assoc_design = "in_content"; The products of Damask rose are rose water, rose oil and dried petals that are used in medicine, food and perfume industry, as well as make-up and health products. Other accounts state that the ancient Romans brought it to their colonies in England, and a third account is that the physician of King Henry VIII gifted him one circa 1540. There were many who tried to produce fake rose oil in order to reap higher profits by diluting the rose oil with geranium oil, the percentage of which could go up to 30-40 as in some cases, everyone along the trading line would try to increase the amount of rose oil they possess. Chicken with rose is a popular dish in Persian cuisine. This difference is due to the height of each valley and its temperature and humidity. The most popular use, however, is in the flavoring of desserts such as ice cream, jam, Turkish delights, rice pudding, yogurt, etc. Its origin was by tradition the Middle East, but recent genetic tests indicate that it is a hybrid of R. moschata x R. gallica crossed with the pollen of Rosa fedtschenkoana, which indicates that a more probable origin is the foothills of central Asia, which is the home of its pollen parent. Cotes, 1640). Shoots of pear and Rosa damascena (Taif Rose) plants were kindly obtained from Taif region, Saudi Arabia kingdom. Actively The flower petals are also edible. Rosa Damascena Extract is an extract of the rose, Rosa damascena. Kazanlak is the Cashmere of Europe, a Turkish Gullestan*.”, *Gullestan from Turkish means ‘rose valley‘ or ‘land of roses‘. June 4, 2018 @ It was most commonly used in desserts, and still is a flavour in traditional desserts such as marzipan or turrón. A strain of cultured cells of Rosa damascena Mill. The notebooks of the old trading companies in the Rose Valley show that the commission taken would vary from 20 to 100%. 1. The resistant cells were 2.2 to 2.8 times larger and had about twice the amount of DNA and more chromosomes than the parental, sensitive cells. Pound for pound, the oil is more expensive than gold! The traders would have relations with various companies from the perfume industry in the USA, France, Germany, UK etc. The Valley is surrounded by mountains which protect it from unfavourable winds, there is a river or a spring flowing through each little village, providing enough water not only for the growth of Rosa Damascena but for a variety of other flowers used in cosmetics and medicine as well. Afterwards, the rose petals are put in big baskets made of willow branches again and are transported to the rose processing plant. Rosa damascena, also called damask roses, can be traced to Asia Minor. The Damask rose of Morocco, is delicate and exceptional. Clothing changed to city fashion even in the villages, The development of coppersmithing,  tinkering, barrel making, basketry. Before growing and trading with Rosa Damascena products, Bulgarians living in the Kazanlak and Karlovo valleys would grow various types of fruits and vegetables, craft different tools, and cloth, herd cattle and trade with neighbour regions. Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. Rosa damascena (other common names: damask rose, summer damask rose). [7], There is a history of fragrance production in Kabul Province of Afghanistan from the Damask rose. The roses are still grown by the small family farms but the flowers are brought to stills established and regulated by the cooperative for distillation and quality control. wooden barrel filled with cold water which is used to cool the hot steam of the rose boiling barrel. The relatively small flowers grow in groups. Rosa × damascena (D) damask rose Join the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. callus culture extract: CAS Number: 90106-38-0: ECHA EC Number: 290-260-3: Category: antioxidants, hair conditioning, humectants . For centuries, the Rose Valley has been a rose-growing area of great importance. A shrub to about 7 ft high; stems and branches densely armed with curved prickles of various sizes, grading into stiff bristles. Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill. In order to find out what the quality of the rose oil is, an expert would check its temperature. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several. In order to find out if any rose plants were frostbitten, the locals would pick a number of branches, stick them in potatoes and leave them behind their stoves for a few days, the ratio between fresh and dry branches would show whether they should hire more or fewer rose pickers. They may be used to flavor food, as a garnish, as an herbal tea, and preserved in sugar as gulkand. Also Hama, Allepo, Homs, and other Syrian cities and villages. Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. Planting, hoeing, earing,  rose picking, transportation, taxes and even a 5% interest. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "ate flower and individual island flowers", Gernot Katzer's Spice Dictionary - Damask Rose, Roses of Constantinople - Damask Rose Kazanlik, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rosa_×_damascena&oldid=995729879, Articles needing additional references from July 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 16:02. Everything you need to know about the cosmetic ingredient ROSA DAMASCENA FLOWER EXTRACT (Damask rose flower extract), CAS number 90106-38-0, functions (Masking, Tonic). Two weeks before the actual rose picking, the local farmers frantically fix the barrels for rose boiling, preparing a fireplace made of ‘red’ clay, buying rose oil bottles and flasks, digging ditches where cold water will flow from the local rivers in order to cool the hot steam of the rose processing. This tube was called бурия (buria). Rosa Damascena (or Damask Rose) has a long history with origins as far as Ancient Persia. 13 Cosmetics Ingredients containing ROSA DAMASCENA FLOWER WATER. For example, a typical Bulgarian method would be to have a metal tube which is put in an 80×80 cm. It takes approximately 1500 roses to make just one milligram of oil – hence it is known as liquid gold. A 1000 square meters of land with Rosa Damascena plants cost between 60-200 levs. It was planted in a special geographical region, the valley between the Balkan Mountain. The hybrid Rosa × centifolia is derived in part from Rosa × damascena, as are Bourbon, Portland and hybrid perpetual roses. Did you know: the small vials where rose oil is stored, ready for sale, is called мускал (muskal) and it comes in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 grams variations. rosa damascena phytoplacenta culture extract extract of a culture of the phytoplacenta of rosa damascena, rosaceae Supplier Sponsors. Psychology / 002A32 Agronomy. The annual average of hired rose pickers was over 3000. Since the 17th century, Rosa Damascena oil has impacted the livelihood, culture, and traditions of Bulgarians living in the southern sub-mountain region of the Balkan Mountains that the valley is now known across the globe as The Valley of Roses. Isparta is located in southwest Turkey and it is known as "City of Roses" at altitude of 1035m. Seems like everyone wanted to test their entrepreneurial spirit or simply ensure their homes smell like roses throughout the year! The various arguments to explain the evolution of Rosa damascena are pre-sented along with accessory information needed to evaluate them critically. In the old times, rose oil was produced through a simple, single distillation process which gave minuscule … The roses are a light to moderate pink to light red. Perhaps due to the low labor cost, these products from India are less expensive than those from Bulgaria and Turkey. Rose water is often sprinkled on meat dishes, while rose powder is added to sauces. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; The Rosa damascena Mill. The famous gyulova rakya (alcohol beverage) became popular both across the country and abroad. The international relations of the bigger rose oil trading and producing companies would introduce new etiquette and cultural trends taken from other countries. During the early 20th century, the price for a vial of rose otto was between 5 and 10 levs and increased gradually up to 300 levs for a vial in 1925. Another important trick is to not let any steam out which would decrease the amount of oil produced. This study designed to investigate the Production of Apple Mosaic Virus –free pear and Rosa damascena plants through tissue culture, to select the best growth. Geranium oil would be imported in Kazanlak from Spain, Italy, and even African countries in order to be mixed with real rose oil. In fact, trading with fake rose oil dates back to ancient times, seems everyone wanted to get their hands on this golden elixir. We just arrived yesterday June 3rd but only could see the parade on the street of kazanlak. The most city famous with this kind of flowers is Damascus, the capital of Syria, because it is the origin of it, and it takes it name from it. A study of 40 accessions, both cultivated and wild, from 28 provinces of Iran, identified nine genotypes and the authors argue that this shows Iran to be the centre of diversity for the damask rose ( Babaei et al 2007 ). The distillate from these roses is called "Bulgarian Rose Oil" and "Bulgarian Rose Otto". The Damask rose is a deciduous shrub growing to 2.2 metres (7 ft 3 in) tall, the stems densely armed with stout, curved prickles and stiff bristles. Gyulova rakia is made from the rose marks leftover from the rose extraction process. 1 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia. In the old times, rose oil was produced through a simple, single distillation process which gave minuscule amounts of rose oil – the most desired scent in ancient times. Global known Damask Rose's been grown there are two main areas: Turkey's Isparta province and region of Kazanluk in Bulgaria. Today, the rose is one of the symbols of Bulgaria and attracts visitors from all over the world, especially from Japan where the rose is also culturally important. It is reported that roses have been cultivated in the area since Roman times. The amount of rose oil produced from the oil-bearing roses depends on the type of rose. The winters in the Rose Valley are mild and combined with the airy soils and heavy Spring rains they form the perfect conditions for growing our dear Rosa Damascena which has an unsurpassed fragrance. Your email address will not be published. Name: rosa damascena mill. The predominant soil in the region is cinnamon-forest soil which is always mixed with sand and rubble, with some formed alluvial soil types and subtypes created by the accumulation of river mineralization. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; Its origin was by tradition the Middle East, but recent genetic tests indicate that it is a hybrid of R. moschata x R. gallica crossed with the pollen of Rosa fedtschenkoana, which indicates that a more probable origin is the foothills of central Asia, which is the home of its pollen parent.[6]. Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the Damask rose,[1][2] or sometimes as the rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata. FamousRoses.eu este unul dintre cei mai importanti furnizori de trandafiri pentru dulceata si ulei esential ('Rosa Damascena Trigintipetala' si 'Rose de Rescht'). Rose water and powdered roses are used in Persian, Indian, and Middle Eastern cuisine. Furthermore, there are hundred-leaved roses (Rosa centifolia), most popular in Provence, which derived from Rosa gallica by hybridization with another type, probably alba. Whole flowers, or petals, are also used in the herbal tea "zuhurat". which showed unusual resistance to damage by short wave (254 nanometers) ultraviolet radiation was isolated. Cancer . ACTIVE MATTER: 50%. You can almost feel the reason why the ancient Thracian tribes have decided to place their valley of Thracian kings inside the Valley of Roses, but let us not get distracted, I will write more about our Thracian heritage in another article! The fragrance of the rose has been captured and preserved in the form of rose water by a method that can be traced to ancient times in the Middle East and later to the Indian subcontinent. Succesul nostru se datoreaza faptului ca oferim clientilor nostri garantie pentru prindere. Did you know: a kilogram of rose petals in 1900 cost 0.15 levs, in 1919 – 0.6 levs and i the 1930s – 20-25 levs. He was apothecary to James I and a founding member of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries in 1617. Experienced rose pickers say that roses give most rose oil when there is high humidity. Bravo!” And don’t forget to wear old clothes as the rose thorns will be all over you. While families still operate their own small distilleries and produce what is denominated "village oil", the commercialization of rose oil as a high quality product is carefully regulated by a state cooperative in the Isparta region of Turkey. The town of Kazanlak, Bulgaria has been inhabited for thousands of years. Everything is checked and double-checked because when the rose processing begins it goes on 24/7 and there is no time for any extra work. The modern production of high quality rose oil (or rose otto) by using a double distillation method began in the 17th century. Many more rose varieties are known, e. g., alba roses, which are probably hybrids of Rosa damascena with the central European wild species Rosa canina. 2016 and 2017. Gathering the flowers is intense manual labor. ), an important species among the scented roses, yields a highly fragrant commerically valuable essential oil. The rose oil produced from the special variety Rosa Damascena was used for women’s beauty products and perfumes. EXTRACT OF ROSA DAMASCENA, ROSA DAMASCENA (ROSE) EXTRACT, ROSA DAMASCENA EXTRACT, and ROSE (ROSA DAMASCENA) EXTRACT. When Spring comes, there is some kind of magic in the air, the birds sing, people smile and the scent of flowers brightens your mind! amzn_assoc_default_category = "All"; Creation of various songs, poetry, and novels connected with the Rosa Damascena. amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; One of their secrets to success was to take off the boiling cauldron off the hot fire and afterwards continue boiling it on low heat fire. There are 3 quality types, the highest quality freezes at -20-21 degrees Celsius, second quality freezes at -18-19 degrees and the third – -16-17. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; It has seen some revival in television cooking in the twenty-first century. [3] Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask rose.[4]. 6:36 am. You may like to make changes in the culture vessel type, gelling agents and incubation conditions of room to over come such problems. 2 The National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt They are an ingredient in the Moroccan spice mixture denominated "ras el hanout". Known as the Damask Rose and Rose of Castile (and Gole Mohammadi in Iran), Rosa damascena, a member of the Rosaceae family, is a rose hybrid the flowers of which have been used for rose oil in perfume and for rosewater.

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